• Kulbir Singh

    A businessman and member of the People’s Union for Democratic Rights (PUDR) in Delhi, Kulbir Singh found himself at the center of the events that unfolded in 1984. In June, just a few months after he had personally met with Bhindranwale in Amritsar, Singh was inside Bangla Sahib when he heard shots fired outside the gurdwara. On the day of Indira Gandhi’s assassination, unaware that it was her Sikh bodyguards that had fired at her, Singh was on a train […]

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  • November 1984: Our Cameras Are Our Candles

    #Watch November 1984 survivors tell their stories: The embers of November burn inside the souls who lived through it. When we hit “record”, we bring their experience – and the collective Sikh experience – to light. This November, let your camera be your candle: Watch and share this montage. Then, grab your smartphone. Talk to a parent, grandparent, relative. Make and submit a video of your own. On this day in 2015, we renew our commitment to memory, truth, and […]

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  • Ashok Singh Bagrian

    “How was this planned? It cannot have been a spontaneous reaction.” In this testimony filled with keen insight into the most important and unanswered questions, Ashok Singh Bagrian explains how in November 1984, he traveled to Delhi with his sister-in-law and an NGO, trying to find the truth. What all the investigations revealed was that the modus operandi of the massacres across India was identical in cities everywhere: the same hired thugs led by chawdries, the same backets of kerosene, […]

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  • Bhagwant Kaur and Niranjan Singh

    They remember how in Jaipur, people said “Nirinjan Singh bach ke aagia, Nirinjan Singh bach ke aagia”. In this powerful and emotional interview, Bhagwant Kaur remembers how she hid her husband underneath the train seats. They were traveling from Hazoor Sahib back home to Jaipur when the train halted at a railway station near Agra. She and her three young daughters guarded Nirinjan Singh, facing a mob that had just burned alive the only two other sardars in their train […]

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  • Deepi Kaur

    Today my teenage son is interested in 1984, reads about it, and we talk about it…I am unafraid,” Deepi Kaur told the 1984 Living History team during this compelling interview. In Preet Vihar, New Delhi, teenager Deepi Kaur, saw the family’s gas station on fire as hundreds gathered for blood. Then, came the yell. Her Chachaji (uncle) was threatening to throw a gas cylinder into the crowd, into the flames—if they were to die, they would ensure the murderers would […]

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  • Devendra Singh

    “Double-six, double-three, nine-three.” To this day, Devendra Singh remembers the phone number of his elderly Bengali neighbors whose house he dialed in November 1984 so he could tell his family he was safe, hiding with his nephew in a friend’s transport for five days while mobs filled the streets of Calcutta. He narrates how relatives across India suffered – from a young nephew who cut his hair himself to survive, to his sister who was protected from mobs by her […]

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  • Harrup Kaur

    “I remember we went to Darbar Sahib a few years later…You’re going up the marble steps and then suddenly you pick your face, and the cool wind blows…and I didn’t realize I had been crying.” Dr. Harrup Kaur was only nine years old during the massacres of 1984, but they shaped her identity in the years that followed. At protests in Vancouver, Canada, she too would pick up the megaphone and shout, resonating with the pain of her elders. As […]

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  • Satpal Singh

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  • Rubin Paul Singh

    Remembering experiencing 1984 in Maryland, USA, Rubin Paul Singh says: “During that time, the only time in my memory, there was a sense of panthic unity. I remember that sea of kesri…” In this video, he explains his own childhood memories of 1984 as well as how he is communicating the legacy of 1984 to his own young children today. “You could trace it all back to a few events…I sometimes trace it back to Sikhs fighting for their rights […]

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  • Ranbir Singh Sandhu

    Dr. Sandhu recounts his reaction of disbelief to the news that Sikhs were behind the assassinated Indira Gandhi and holds even today: “I really believe that they didn’t do it.” Regardless, he says, “First they ‘taught Sikhs a lesson’ in June but apparently that wasn’t enough, they wanted to do it all over the country now.” Now famed for his book “Struggle for Justice: Speeches and Conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale,” Dr. Ranbir Singh Sandhu had no idea […]

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  • Uma Chakravarti

    “Maam, go and put on a sari (a student said)… because they thought that if I was wearing a salwar kameez I might get (hurt).” “I was outraged at the comment, because I thought this was some strange way into which you were going to divide yourself into those who are potential targets of attack… and those who are not.” A Professor of History in Miranda House, Delhi University, in 1984, Uma Chakravarti recounts how rumblings of violence began to […]

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  • T Sher Singh

    A Toronto, Canada Sikh involved in media, law and policy, T. Sher Singh had a front-seat view into what he explains as a relentless misinformation campaign—including an instance where a government communiqué was sent to the Canadian government describing the Nishaan Sahib [Sikh flag] as a terrorist flag—as well as what he explains as the initiation of Sikh institution-building in the diaspora. He describes critical community empowerment despite the odds: “…The fact that 1984 happened, we [Sikhs] dealt with massive […]

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